The soil system is undergoing changes. Not only the physical settling and subsidence of the soil is a problem, but also what happens in the soil itself in terms of physical-chemical and biological processes. As a result of intensive agricultural use, the quality and productivity of the soil has deteriorated considerably.
More knowledge of the (sustainable) design, use and management of soil systems (including coastal and marine systems) and the life that comes with it (ecosystems) is necessary. Research is being used to find solutions that will inject resilience back into the deltas and make them future-proof.